14-810: Network Security Engineering: Analysis & Automation (Special Topics) - Spring, 2021
Professor Ehab Al-Shaer
Pittsburgh, INI Building, Office# 125
TH 7:00-8:50 & F 3:20-4:10 / CIC 1201
Skype, or by appointment (send an email, subject 14-810)
(412) 268-7899 (Office)
(803) 792-1067 (Google Voice)
In this course, students will learn the theory and practice of network defense including designing and optimizing network security architecture, network security configuration verification and automation (such as Firewalls, IPSec gateways, IDS, and NAT), the adversary modeling and analysis using attack tactics, techniques and procedures (TTP), automated cyber threat hunting and mitigation, quantitative cyber risk assessment and mitigation, anomaly detection and adaptive intrusion response.
The goal of the course is to enable students to learn the formal reasoning and data-driven analysis techniques and tools for developing for addressing key network security engineering challenges including automated network security hardening, detecting security misconfigurations, risk quantification and security measurement, automated response using courses of actions playbooks, models for adaptive and active cyber defense. In addition, students will learn the about advanced solutions for emergent network defense such as cyber deception and cyber deterrence.
Number of Units: 12
The course assumes a basic computer networking knowledge, C and UNIX programming, as well as an elementary logic and probability theory background, but does not assume any prior exposure to topics in computer or communications security. Students lacking technical background (e.g., students without any prior exposure to programming) are expected to catch up through self-study.
Course Philosophy & Objectives
Cybersecurity is one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing fields. Mastering network security engineering requires learning not only the concepts but also the science of security foundation, and the analytical and development skills for creating effective and practical solutions. This course will cover the concepts of analyzing and automating network security engineering including design, configuration, and implementation for securing cyber infrastructure. In successfully completing this course, you will have the opportunity to:
· Learn how to design the architecture and configure network access control devices (firewall, IPSec, IDS, and application-level proxies) consistently and correctly according to mission properties and/or security policies.
· Learn how to apply science of security concept to measure potential risk, implied risks and residual risk and create plans for automated risk mitigation against evolving threats.
· Learn how to develop automated orchestration engine for intrusion response systems (IRS) based on the course of action and playbook technology.
· Learn attack modeling based on the Kill Chain concept and ATT&CK framework.
· Learn how to develop middle-boxes for filtering, inspecting and tunneling using socket programming.
· Learn about emerging advanced cyber defense techniques such as adaptive cyber deception and moving target defense.
@Pittsburgh campus: CIC 1201 in T 7:00 pm -8:50 pm EDT & F 3:20-4:20 EDT.
No Text Book is required. Students are expected to read assigned papers and take good class notes.
Ø W#1: Cyber Attacks: Taxonomy and Analytics
o Overview of Cyber/Cyber-physical Infrastructures and Network Programming
o Overview of Network Attacks
o Attack Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTP)
o Attack Modeling and Simulation
o Overview of Cyber Defense framework: (NIST) Identification, Prevention, Detection, Response & Recovery, cyber dereference, cyber deception
Ø W#2-4: Network Security Configurations: Design, modeling, verification and synthesis
o Foundation: Theory and Applications of Formal Methods and Constraint Satisfaction Problem Solver in Security Configuration Analytics.
o Firewall Configuration Analytics
o IPSec Configuration Analytics
o End-to-End Network Access Control Analytics: routers/switches, access points, NAT, network proxies, etc
o 0-Trust Architecture
Ø W#5: Network Intrusion Analytics and Metrics
o Foundation: Information Theory and Entropy Measurements
o Information theory and applications
o Signature and Anomaly-based Detection
Ø Week#6: Cyber Risk Analytics: Measurement & Quantification
o Foundation: Theory and Practice of Science of Security
o Overview of Risk Management standards and Best Practices
o Cyber Risk Theory: Qualitative and Quantitative Risk Assessment
o Measuring Threat Exposure, Severity, and Impact
Ø Week#7: Cyber Risk Analytics: Formal Modeling
o Foundation: Bayesian Analysis and First Order Logic & Reasoning
o Implied Cyber Risk
o Cyber Risk Propagation
o Measuring Attack Surface
Ø Week#8: Cyber Risk Analytics: Mitigation & Optimization
o Risk Mitigation Planning and Optimization
o Data-driven Predictive Risk Analytics
o Measuring Network Security Resistance and Residual Risk
Ø Week#9: Attack Graph & Security Hardening
o Vulnerability Theory: CVE, CWE and CAPEC
o Network Attack Graphs: Construction
o Network Attack Graphs: Mitigation & Optimization
o Automated Synthesis of Network Access Control Configuration
Ø W#10: Intrusion Response- Basic mitigation theory
o Classification of Mitigation Actions
o Defense Optimization
Ø W#11-12: Security Orchestration and Automation Response-- Advanced mitigation theory
o Foundation: Developing POMDP & Reinforcement agents.
o OODA & BRITE Loop for Sense-making and Decision-making in Cyber Defense.
o Cyber Threat Investigation and Coursed of Actions Standardization and Formulation.
o Playbooks Models and Policies.
o Security Orchestration.
o Cyber Defense Optimization and Adaptation (Case Study: DDoS and Botnet Mitigation)
Ø W#13-14: Advanced Topics
o Cyber Deterrence and Moving Target Defense
o Cyber Deception.
o Cyber Resilience
Students will be assigned several analytical and programming assignments and they will participate in a course group project in addition to quizzes, and a final exam. All submissions are to be made through Canvas. Email submissions will NOT be accepted.
Assignment & Project Topics
(Programming and analytical assignments; each assignment will have 2 weeks)
1. Attack tactics and techniques simulation using MITRE ATT&CK
2. (a) Firewall verification, (b) Developing proxy firewall with IPSec tunneling capabilities.
3. Risk measurement based on Nessus data and automated configuration hardening.
4. Developing anomaly-based classifiers for network traffic analysis.
5. Developing a basic Security Orchestration and Automation Response (SOAR) System.
Evaluation and Grading
Grades will be determined based on multiple deliverables including (1) 20-min quizzes (every Sunday), (2) programming and analytical assignments, (3) the course (group or individual) project, and the final exam (covers selected topics in the course that quizzes will not cover).
Course Project Demo and Presentation
This course is entirely taught in English, and all materials submitted by the students, including homework, exams, assignments, and quizzes, must be submitted in English. In-class oral participation must also be in English. Homework, quizzes, or exams submitted in a language other than English will not be graded. Please do not worry about making grammatical or vocabulary mistakes. We will never penalize you for using improper grammar or vocabulary, as long as your statements remain clear and unambiguous.
Class attendance is required. In-class participation is encouraged and expected. In other words, please do ask questions and make constructive comments during lectures. Additionally, you are only eligible to take quizzes if you attend class.
Auditors & Non-degree Students
Auditors are expected to attend lectures, but cannot submit homework, hand in tests, or take exams. Auditors only get a record of audit at the end of the semester. On the other hand, non-degree students are subject to the same rules and expectations as degree students.
Cell Phone and Wi-Fi
Please remember to turn off or silence your phones (and other alarms) before each class meeting. We will subtract i points from your total grade the i-th time your phone/alarm/pager rings in class during the semester. No exceptions. As a matter of courtesy to the instructor and other students, please refrain from reading the news, participating in social networks, or checking your email using your wi-fi connection during lectures. It is most likely the case that you do not need a laptop when you come to class.
Late Homework Submission Policy
For full credit, homework must be turned in by 5:00 PM EST on the due date. You have two “grace days” that you can use at any time during the semester for late homework. That is, you can turn in a total of two homework assignments a day late (“a day late” is defined as any delay between 0 and 24 hours after the deadline,) one homework two days late, etc. You must notify the instructor and T.A.s prior to using (a) grace day(s). Assignments turned in late without “grace credit” will be penalized by 10% per day. Homework late by more than three days will not be graded. Exceptions require either prior arrangement or doctor-validated medical excuse.
Students are encouraged to talk to each other, to the T.A.(s), to the instructor, or to anyone else about any of the homework assignments. Any assistance, though, must be limited to discussion of the problem and sketching general approaches to a solution. Each student must write out his or her own solutions to the homework. Consulting another student’s solution is prohibited, and submitted solutions may not be copied from any source. These and any other form of collaboration on assignments constitute cheating. Any form of collaboration is strictly prohibited on the exams and is considered cheating. If you have any questions about whether some activity would constitute cheating, please feel free to ask. Cheating on an assignment/exam will result in failure of the course, and the university administration (department, college) will be notified per the appropriate procedures. Simply stated, feel free to discuss problems with each other, but do not cheat. It is not worth it, and you will get caught.
All teaching materials in this class, including course slides, homework, assignments, practice exams and quizzes, are copyrighted; reproduction, redistribution and other rights solely belong to the instructors. In particular, it is not permissible to upload any or part of these materials to public or private websites without the instructor’s explicit consent. Violating this copyright policy will be considered as an academic integrity violation, with the consequences discussed above. Reading materials are also copyrighted by their respective publishers and cannot be reposted or distributed without prior authorization from the publisher.
ECE Academic Integrity Policy
The Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering adheres to the academic integrity policies set forth by Carnegie Mellon University and by the College of Engineering. ECE students should review fully and carefully Carnegie Mellon University's policies regarding Cheating and Plagiarism; Undergraduate Academic Discipline; and Graduate Academic Discipline. ECE graduate student should further review the Penalties for Graduate Student Academic Integrity Violations in CIT outlined in the CIT Policy on Graduate Student Academic Integrity Violations. In addition to the above university and college-level policies, it is ECE's policy that an ECE graduate student may not drop a course in which a disciplinary action is assessed or pending without the course instructor's explicit approval. Further, an ECE course instructor may set his/her own course-specific academic integrity policies that do not conflict with university and college-level policies; course-specific policies should be made available to the students in writing in the first week of class.
This policy applies, in all respects, to this course.
CMU Academic Integrity Policy (http://www.cmu.edu/academic-integrity/index.htmlLinks to an external site.):
In the midst of self-exploration, the high demands of a challenging academic environment can create situations where some students have difficulty exercising good judgment.
Academic challenges can provide many opportunities for high standards to evolve if students actively reflect on these challenges and if the community supports discussions to aid in this process. It is the responsibility of the entire community to establish and maintain the integrity of our university.
This site is offered as a comprehensive and accessible resource compiling and organizing the multitude of information pertaining to academic integrity that is available from across the university. These pages include practical information concerning policies, protocols, and best practices as well as articulations of the institutional values from which the policies and protocols grew. The Carnegie Mellon Code, while not formally an honor code, serves as the foundation of these values and frames the expectations of our community with regard to personal integrity.
THE CARNEGIE MELLON CODE
Students at Carnegie Mellon, because they are members of an academic community dedicated to the achievement of excellence, are expected to meet the highest standards of personal, ethical and moral conduct possible.
These standards require personal integrity, a commitment to honesty without compromise, as well as truth without equivocation and a willingness to place the good of the community above the good of the self. Obligations once undertaken must be met, commitments kept.
As members of the Carnegie Mellon community, individuals are expected to uphold the standards of the community in addition to holding others accountable for said standards. It is rare that the life of a student in an academic community can be so private that it will not affect the community as a whole or that the above standards do not apply.
The discovery, advancement and communication of knowledge are not possible without a commitment to these standards. Creativity cannot exist without acknowledgment of the creativity of others. New knowledge cannot be developed without credit for prior knowledge. Without the ability to trust that these principles will be observed, an academic community cannot exist.
The commitment of its faculty, staff and students to these standards contributes to the high respect in which the Carnegie Mellon degree is held. Students must not destroy that respect by their failure to meet these standards. Students who cannot meet them should voluntarily withdraw from the university. This policy applies, in all respects, to this course.
Carnegie Mellon University's Policy on Cheating (http://www.cmu.edu/academic-integrity/cheating/index.htmlLinks to an external site.) states the following:
According to the University Policy on Academic Integrity, cheating "occurs when a student avails her/himself of an unfair or disallowed advantage which includes but is not limited to:
· Theft of or unauthorized access to an exam, answer key or other graded work from previous course offerings.
· Use of an alternate, stand-in or proxy during an examination.
· Copying from the examination or work of another person or source.
· Submission or use of falsified data.
· Using false statements to obtain additional time or other accommodation.
· Falsification of academic credentials.”
This policy applies, in all respects, to this course.
Carnegie Mellon University's Policy on Plagiarism (http://www.cmu.edu/academic-integrity/plagiarism/index.htmlLinks to an external site.) states the following:
According to the University Policy on Academic Integrity, plagiarism "is defined as the use of work or concepts contributed by other individuals without proper attribution or citation. Unique ideas or materials taken from another source for either written or oral use must be fully acknowledged in academic work to be graded. Examples of sources expected to be referenced include but are not limited to:
· Text, either written or spoken, quoted directly or paraphrased.
· Graphic elements.
· Passages of music, existing either as sound or as notation.
· Mathematical proofs.
· Scientific data.
· Concepts or material derived from the work, published or unpublished, of another person."
This policy applies, in all respects, to this course.
Carnegie Mellon University's Policy on Unauthorized Assistance (http://www.cmu.edu/academic-integrity/collaboration/index.htmlLinks to an external site.) states the following:
According to the University Policy on Academic Integrity, unauthorized assistance "refers to the use of sources of support that have not been specifically authorized in this policy statement or by the course instructor(s) in the completion of academic work to be graded. Such sources of support may include but are not limited to advice or help provided by another individual, published or unpublished written sources, and electronic sources. Examples of unauthorized assistance include but are not limited to:
· Collaboration on any assignment beyond the standards authorized by this policy statement and the course instructor(s).
· Submission of work completed or edited in whole or in part by another person.
· Supplying or communicating unauthorized information or materials, including graded work and answer keys from previous course offerings, in any way to another student.
· Use of unauthorized information or materials, including graded work and answer keys from previous course offerings.
· Use of unauthorized devices.
· Submission for credit of previously completed graded work in a second course without first obtaining permission from the instructor(s) of the second course. In the case of concurrent courses, permission to submit the same work for credit in two courses must be obtained from the instructors of both courses."
This policy applies, in all respects, to this course.
Carnegie Mellon University's Policy on Research Misconduct (http://www.cmu.edu/academic-integrity/research/index.htmlLinks to an external site.) states the following: According to the University Policy For Handling Alleged Misconduct In Research, “Carnegie Mellon University is responsible for the integrity of research conducted at the university. As a community of scholars, in which truth and integrity are fundamental, the university must establish procedures for the investigation of allegations of misconduct of research with due care to protect the rights of those accused, those making the allegations, and the university. Furthermore, federal regulations require the university to have explicit procedures for addressing incidents in which there are allegations of misconduct in research.” The policy goes on to note that “misconduct means:
· fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, or other serious deviation from accepted practices in proposing, carrying out, or reporting results from research;
· material failure to comply with Federal requirements for the protection of researchers, human subjects, or the public or for ensuring the welfare of laboratory animals; or
· failure to meet other material legal requirements governing research.” “To be deemed misconduct for the purposes of this policy, a ‘material failure to comply with Federal requirements’ or a ‘failure to meet other material legal requirements’ must be intentional or grossly negligent.”
To become familiar with the expectations around the responsible conduct of research, please review the guidelines for Research Ethics published by the Office of Research Integrity and Compliance.
Other Useful Information
Every individual must be treated with respect. The ways we are diverse are many and are critical to excellence and an inclusive community. They include but are not limited to race, color, national origin, sex, disability, age, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, creed, ancestry, belief, veteran status, or genetic information. We at CMU will work to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion because it is just and necessary for innovation. Therefore, while we are imperfect, we will work inside and outside of our classrooms, to increase our commitment to build and sustain a community that embraces these values.
It is the responsibility of each of us to create a safer and more inclusive environment. Bias incidents, whether intentional or unintentional in their occurrence, contribute to creating an unwelcoming environment for individuals and groups at the university. If you experience or observe unfair or hostile treatment on the basis of identity, we encourage you to speak out for justice and support at the moment and/or share your experience anonymously using the following resources:
Center for Student Diversity and Inclusion: firstname.lastname@example.org, (412) 268-2150, www.cmu.edu/student-diversityLinks to an external site.
Report-It online anonymous reporting platform: www.reportit.net (Links to an external site.) username: tartans password: plaid
All reports will be acknowledged, documented and a determination will be made regarding a course of action.” All experiences shared will be used to transform the campus climate.
Active Shooter Advice: To prepare for the unlikely event of a campus shooting, please refer to https://www.cmu.edu/police/Resources/Active%20Shooter.html
Earthquake Preparation: During an earthquake, “drop, cover, and hold on.” Please see details: https://www.earthquakecountry.org/step5/
Accommodations for Students with Disabilities: If you have a disability and have an accommodations letter from the Disability Resources office, I encourage you to discuss your accommodations and needs with me as early in the semester as possible. I will work with you to ensure that accommodations are provided as appropriate. If you suspect that you may have a disability and would benefit from accommodations but are not yet registered with the Office of Disability Resources, I encourage you to contact them at email@example.com.
Take Care of
do your best to maintain a healthy lifestyle this semester by eating well,
exercising, avoiding drugs and alcohol, getting enough sleep and taking some
time to relax. This will help you achieve your goals and cope with stress.
All of us benefit from support during times of struggle. You are not alone. There are many helpful resources available on campus and an important part of the college experience is learning how to ask for help. Asking for support sooner rather than later is often helpful.
If you or anyone you know experiences any academic stress, difficult life events, or feelings like anxiety or depression, I strongly encourage you to seek support. Counseling and Psychological Services (CaPS) is here to help: call 412-268-2922 or visit their website at http://www.cmu.edu/counseling/Links to an external site..
Consider reaching out to a friend, faculty, or family member you trust for help getting connected to the support that can help. Please let me know if I can be of assistance to you in this way. It is not my intention to know the details of what might be bothering you, but simply to let you know I am concerned and that help, if needed, is available.